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Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab > Volume 13(2); 2008 > Article
Vitamin D Deficiency in Breastfed Infants.
Hae Sang Lee, Beom Taek Lim, Hyo Sung Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. pedhwang@ajou.ac.kr
Abstract
PURPOSE
Vitamin D deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. There has been a reappearance of rickets from vitamin D deficiency in recent decades as a result of multiple factors. One of the factors is breast feeding. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of rickets in breastfed infants. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients presenting to Ajou University hospital between 2003 and 2008 with rickets caused by vitamin D deficiency during breast feeding.
RESULTS
Seventeen patients (10 boys and 7 girls) were diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency. There were six in the asymptomatic and eleven in the symptomatic patients. The mean age of the patients was 8.5+/-0.5 months. The mean 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was 3.55+/-1.88 ng/mL. 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels were below 5 ng/mL in 13 patients. The mean serum alkaline phosphatase was 765.53+/-563.9 IU/L, the mean intact parathyroid hormone was 231.6+/-225.7 pg/mL. All except 3 patients were showed cupping and fraying of metaphysis.
CONCLUSION
Breast feeding is associated with increased risk of rickets. We recommend vitamin D supplementation of all breastfed infants to prevent rickets. Supplementation should begin within the first 2 months of life. Also, we hope to initiate further research and debate about guideline of vitamin D supplementation
Keywords: Breast feeding;Vitamin D;Rickets
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